Yellow Springs, Ohio
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Yellow Springs, Ohio|
|Motto: Find Yourself Here|
Location of Yellow Springs, Ohio
|• Total||2.02 sq mi (5.23 km2)|
|• Land||2.02 sq mi (5.23 km2)|
|• Water||0 sq mi (0 km2)|
|• Estimate (2012)||3,526|
|• Density||1,726.2/sq mi (666.5/km2)|
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
Yellow Springs is a village in Greene County, Ohio, United States. The population was 3,487 at the 2010 census. It is part of theDayton Metropolitan Statistical Area. It is home of Antioch College and Antioch University Midwest.
In 1825, the village was founded by William Mills and approximately 100 families, followers of Robert Owen, who wanted to emulate the utopian community at New Harmony, Indiana. The communitarian efforts dissolved due to internal conflicts. The Little Miami Railroad was completed in 1846 and brought increased commerce, inhabitants, and tourism. The village was incorporated in 1856.
Antioch College was founded in 1852 by the Christian Connection, and began operating in 1853 with the distinguished scholarHorace Mann as its first president. Arthur E. Morgan was the innovative president of Antioch College who implemented a much-imitated work-study program for students. An engineer by training, Morgan became head of the Tennessee Valley Authority inFranklin D. Roosevelt's Administration. Upon his return to Yellow Springs, Morgan was a key leader of Quaker intentional community developments in Ohio and North Carolina. Antioch College was closed by Antioch University in 2008 but reopened, as an independent college, in 2011.
Yellow Springs was one of the final stops on the Underground Railroad, due in large part to the abolitionist reputation of Horace Mann. The Conway Colony, a group of 30 freed slaves who were transported by Moncure D. Conway, the abolitionist son of their former owner, settled in the village in 1862. Wheeling Gaunt, a former slave who purchased his own freedom, came to Yellow Springs in the 1860s and owned a substantial amount of land upon his death in 1894. Gaunt bequeathed to the village a large piece of land on its western side, requesting that the rent be used to buy flour for the "poor and worthy widows" of Yellow Springs. Although the land was used to create Gaunt Park, and thus does not generate rent, the village expanded the bequest to include sugar and still delivers flour and sugar to the village's widows at Christmas time, a tradition that generates annual media coverage.
During the Red Scare of the 1950s, Yellow Springs and Antioch came under scrutiny for alleged sympathies to the Communist Partydue to many locals' support of Left-wing politics. After being questioned by the Ohio House Un-American Activities Committee, Antioch president Douglas McGregor released a statement in 1952 that "Antioch upholds the American tradition of academic freedom. This means the right to hear and investigate all sides of any question, including the question of Russia and Communism".By the late 1960s and early '70s, the village became a center for the civil rights and anti-war movements in southwestern Ohio, creating a sociopolitical demographic change which remains today. In 1979, Yellow Springs held the distinction of being the smallest municipality to pass an ordinance prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation.